Jody Tucker

Indoor Seed Starting 101

starting seeds

January 31, 2024

I’m Jody.
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Are you ready to get a jump start on your garden this year? Indoor seed starting is a fantastic way to give your plants a head start before the last frost date. Whether you’re a seasoned gardener or a beginner, this comprehensive guide will walk you through everything you need to know about indoor seed starting. From choosing the right seeds and containers to providing the ideal growing conditions, we’ve got you covered.



Starting your seeds indoors offers several benefits, making it a popular choice among gardeners. One of the key advantages is the ability to extend the growing season. By starting seeds indoors, you can get a head start on the growing process and have mature plants ready for the garden as soon as the weather permits. This means you can enjoy fresh produce or beautiful blooms earlier than if you were to rely solely on direct sowing.

Another benefit of indoor seed starting is the wider selection of plant varieties available. Nurseries and seed catalogs offer a vast array of seeds that may not be available as established plants. I have discovered Baker Creek Seeds out of Missouri, and I just love the variety and amazing selections. I’m so excited to get started with the seeds this year! This opens up a world of possibilities for trying new and unique varieties that I may have never come across before. Whether you’re looking for heirloom tomatoes, rare flowers, or exotic herbs, starting seeds indoors allows you to explore a diverse range of options.

Baker Creek Seed Catalog

Here’s what else you get when starting seeds indoors!

Gives you more control over the growing conditions.
Creates the perfect environment for your seedlings.
Stronger, healthier plants to withstand outdoor conditions once transplanted.
Experiment and find what works best for your plants and growing space.



To successfully start seeds indoors, you’ll need a few essential supplies. The first item on your list is seed-starting trays or containers. These can be purchased at garden centers or online, or you can repurpose items like egg cartons, yogurt cups, or even newspaper pots. Just make sure to choose containers that have drainage holes to prevent waterlogged soil.


Next, you’ll need a high-quality seed-starting mix. This is a specially formulated soil mix that provides the ideal conditions for seed germination and early growth. It’s lightweight, sterile, and holds moisture well, giving your seeds the best chance of success. Avoid using regular potting soil, as it can be too heavy and may contain pathogens that could harm your seedlings.


In addition to trays and seed-starting mix, you’ll need grow lights. While natural light from a south-facing window can work for some plants, most seedlings require consistent and intense light for optimal growth. LED or fluorescent grow lights are the most popular options and can be easily set up using adjustable light fixtures or dedicated grow light systems. Position the lights a few inches above the seedlings and adjust the height as they grow to ensure they receive adequate light.


Other supplies you may need include a spray bottle for misting your seedlings, plant labels to keep track of different varieties, and a small fan to promote air circulation and prevent damping-off disease. Additionally, having a heating mat or a warm location in your home can help maintain the optimal temperature for seed germination, especially for warm-season crops.


When selecting seeds for indoor starting, it’s important to consider the specific needs of each plant. Some crops, like tomatoes and peppers, require a longer growing season and benefit from starting seeds indoors. Others, such as beans and root vegetables, prefer direct sowing as they don’t tolerate transplanting well..

Baker Seed Haul

Consider the space you have available and choose seeds that suit your growing conditions. If you have limited space, focus on compact or dwarf varieties that are well-suited for container gardening. Additionally, take into account the amount of light your indoor space receives. Some plants, like herbs and leafy greens, can tolerate lower light levels, while others, like fruiting vegetables, need more intense light to thrive.

When purchasing seeds, look for reputable seed companies that offer high-quality, non-GMO seeds. Consider choosing heirloom or open-pollinated varieties, as they can be saved and replanted year after year, preserving their unique characteristics. Also, check the seed packets for specific instructions on indoor starting, as some seeds may require special treatments like scarification or stratification before planting.


starting seeds
Before you plant your seeds, it’s important to prepare them properly to ensure successful germination. Start by checking the seed packets for any specific instructions on seed treatment. Some seeds may benefit from soaking in water, while others may require scarification or stratification to break dormancy.

Let’s Get Planting!

Once you’re ready to sow, fill your seed-starting trays with moistened seed-starting mix. Gently press the mix down to create a firm but not compacted surface. Next, sow your seeds according to the recommended depth and spacing provided on the seed packet. As a general rule, plant the seeds at a depth of two to three times their diameter.

After planting, cover the seeds with a thin layer of seed-starting mix or vermiculite to provide insulation and protect them from drying out. Mist the surface with water using a spray bottle, taking care not to saturate the soil. Finally, label your trays with the name and planting date to keep track of the different varieties.


Creating the ideal growing environment for your seedlings is crucial to their success. One of the most important factors to consider is light. As mentioned earlier, most seedlings require intense light to grow strong and healthy. If you’re using grow lights, position them a few inches above the seedlings and adjust the height as they grow. Aim for 12-16 hours of light per day to mimic the long days of summer.
Light for seeds

Temperature is another critical factor. Most seeds germinate best at temperatures between 65°F and 75°F (18°C and 24°C). Consider using a heating mat to provide bottom heat if your home is cooler than this range. Place a thermometer near your seedlings to monitor the temperature and make any necessary adjustments.

Proper air circulation is essential for preventing diseases and promoting sturdy growth. If your seedlings are in a closed environment, such as a covered seed tray, remove the cover once the seeds have germinated to allow air to circulate. You can also use a small fan set to a low speed to gently move the air around the plants.

Lastly, maintaining the right moisture level is crucial for seed germination and early growth. Avoid overwatering, as excess moisture can lead to fungal diseases or root rot. Water your seedlings from the bottom by placing the trays in a shallow tray filled with water. Allow the soil to absorb the water through the drainage holes, then remove the trays and empty any excess water.


Once your seeds have germinated, it’s important to provide proper care to ensure healthy growth. Here are a few essential tips to keep in mind:

1. Thinning: If multiple seedlings sprout in the same cell or container, thin them out by gently removing the weakest ones, leaving only the strongest seedling. This ensures that each plant has enough space, light, and nutrients to grow.

2. Watering: Water your seedlings regularly, keeping the soil moist but not waterlogged. Check the moisture level by inserting your finger into the soil up to your first knuckle. If it feels dry, it’s time to water. Use a gentle stream of water or a spray bottle to avoid disturbing the delicate roots.

3. Fertilizing: Once your seedlings have developed their first true leaves, you can start feeding them with a diluted liquid fertilizer. Choose a balanced fertilizer with equal amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Follow the instructions on the fertilizer package for proper dilution and frequency of application.

4. Hardening Off: Before transplanting your seedlings outdoors, they need to be gradually acclimated to the outdoor conditions. This process, known as hardening off, involves exposing the seedlings to increasing amounts of sunlight, wind, and fluctuating temperatures over a period of 7-10 days. Start by placing them outdoors in a shaded area for a few hours each day, gradually increasing their exposure.


Once your seedlings have been hardened off, it’s time to transplant them into the garden. Choose a day when the weather is mild and overcast to minimize stress on the plants.

growth of a dahlia

Before transplanting, prepare the soil by removing any weeds or debris and loosening it with a garden fork or tiller. Dig a hole slightly larger than the root ball of your seedling and gently remove it from its container. Place the seedling in the hole, making sure the soil level around the stem is the same as it was in the container. Firmly press the soil around the base of the plant to eliminate air pockets.

Water the newly transplanted seedlings thoroughly to settle the soil and provide them with a good start. Consider using a diluted liquid fertilizer during the first few weeks to promote root development and overall growth. Monitor the plants closely during the first few days and provide additional water if needed.


While indoor seed starting can be rewarding, it’s not without its challenges. Here are some common problems you may encounter and tips on how to troubleshoot them:

1. Damping-off: This is a fungal disease that causes seedlings to wilt and die. To prevent damping-off, ensure proper air circulation, avoid overwatering, and use sterilized containers and soilless mix. If damping-off occurs, remove the affected seedlings and adjust the growing conditions to prevent further spread.

2. Leggy Seedlings: Leggy or elongated seedlings are a result of insufficient light. To prevent legginess, provide adequate light intensity and keep the lights close to the seedlings. If your seedlings are already leggy, bury them deeper when transplanting to encourage more stable growth.

3. Overwatering: Overwatering can lead to root rot and other fungal diseases. Allow the soil to dry out slightly between waterings and avoid keeping the trays in standing water. Adjust your watering schedule based on the moisture level of the soil.

4. Temperature Fluctuations: Rapid temperature changes can stress seedlings and affect their growth. Avoid placing your seedlings in drafty areas or near heating or cooling vents. Maintain a consistent temperature range to promote healthy growth.


Indoor seed starting is a valuable technique that can greatly enhance your gardening experience. It allows you to extend your growing season, explore a wider range of plant varieties, and have more control over the growing conditions. By following the steps outlined in this guide, you’ll be well-equipped to start your seeds indoors successfully and enjoy a bountiful garden.

Remember, starting seeds indoors is an art that requires practice and experimentation. Each plant has its own specific requirements and preferences, so don’t be discouraged if you encounter some challenges along the way. With time and experience, you’ll become more confident and skilled in the art of indoor seed starting.

So, gather your supplies, choose your seeds, and embark on this exciting journey of starting your own plants from scratch. Whether you’re growing vegetables, flowers, or herbs, the rewards of seeing your seedlings thrive and mature into beautiful, productive plants are truly unmatched. Happy gardening!

Article written with assistance from UberSuggest 2.0


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Jody Tucker has been a MN Licensed Real Estate Agent for 4 years. She has a strong love for homes and for helping join people with the perfect home that suits their lifestyle. 

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